The Uses of Nitric Acid
Nitric acid is the building block chemical for the production of many other chemical compounds. It is used in manufacturing several types of polymers like polyamides and polyurethane. Nitric acid is also commonly used as rocket propellants in the aerospace industry. It is also used for manufacturing nitrogen-based compounds like nylon as well as most of the explosives like trinitrotoluene (T.N.T.), nitroglycerin, amongst others. Other uses include, production of nitrate salts, making dyes, coal tar products and drugs. It is also used mostly for the purification of precious metals like platinum, gold, and silver.
Daily Life Uses
The most common use of Nitric acid is found in schools where it is often utilized as a laboratory reagent. Diluted nitric acid is used in woodworks to fabricate maple and pine wood and make them look aged. It is also used in food industries and helps in cleaning food and equipments, etc. More significantly, nitric acid is also used to spot test alkaloids like LSD. Another test known as Colorimetric test which requires nitric acid is used to differentiate between morphine and heroin. These are some of the popular uses of nitric acid. To know more about properties, structure of acids and bases you can keep visiting BYJU’s or download our app for interesting content and learning experience.
Nitric acid is a corrosive acid and a powerful oxidizing agent. The major hazard posed by it is chemical burns, as it carries out acid hydrolysis with proeins (amide) and fats (ester), which consequently decomposes living tissue (e.g. skin and flesh). Concentrated nitric acid stains human skin yellow due to its reaction with the keratin. These yellow stains turn orange when neutralized. Systemic effects are unlikely, however, and the substance is not considered a carcinogen or mutagen. The standard first-aid treatment for acid spills on the skin is, as for other corrosive agents, irrigation with large quantities of water. Washing is continued for at least 10–15 minutes to cool the tissue surrounding the acid burn and to prevent secondary damage. Contaminated clothing is removed immediately and the underlying skin washed thoroughly. Being a strong oxidizing agent, nitric acid can react with compounds such as cyanides, carbides, or metallic powders explosively and with many organic compounds, such as turpentine, violently and hypergolically (i.e. self-igniting). Hence, it should be stored away from bases and organics.